St Crispin’s Day and the Battle of Agincourt

Agincourt

“Crispin Crispian shall ne’er go by,
From this day to the ending of the world,
But we in it shall be remember’d;
We few, we happy few, we band of brothers.”

William Shakespeare – ‘Henry V’

October 25th is St Crispin’s Day and the anniversary of the Battle of Agincourt.  2015 is the six hundredth anniversary of the heroic battle when the warrior English King Henry V defeated the largely superior French army of the time during the Hundred Years’ War (which incidentally lasted for 116 years, but the Hundred and Sixteen Years War doesn’t sound quite so catchy).

Agincourt French Knight

Our version of the battle is almost entirely informed by William Shakespeare in the play Henry V but as with most of his histories this was a highly dubious account of what really happened and modern historians have reached the view that far from being gallant and chivalrous and still celebrated as a golden moment in England’s history the battle was filthy, horrible and merciless.

Weapons were crude and brutal.  Arrows from the longbows of the Welsh archers rained down and where the sword of a knight would not penetrate the armour of a noble foe and did not have the weight to knock a man off his feet, a poleaxe (a long-handled axe or hammer, topped with a fearsome spike) would fell him fast and then it was easy to raise the victim’s visor and slide a knife through an eye.  That was how hundreds of men died – their last sight on earth a dagger’s point.

Agincourt Archers

It turns out that Agincourt is not a tale of chivalry, but rather of desperate men hacking at each other to break limbs and crush skulls.  Of hundreds of French soldiers weighed down by heavy armour submerged and drowning in mud.  Hand to hand combat by men using lead-weighted hammers, poleaxes, mauls and falcon-beaks, the ghastly paraphernalia of medieval fighting.

At the height of the battle, when Henry V fearful of an attack on his rear  he ordered the captured French prisoners to be slaughtered, an action today that would almost certainly be denounced as a war crime.  He is alleged to have once saidthat ‘War without fire is like sausages without mustard’.  Even Shakespeare makes no attempt to omit this part of the story which would suggest that even in Tudor times such action was considered acceptable.  No United Nations Rules of Engagement or Geneva Convention in 1415.

In the cold, wet dawn of October 25th 1415, no one could have expected Henry’s army to survive the day.  He had about six thousand men, more than five thousand of them archers, while the French numbered at least thirty-thousand and were so confident of victory that, before the battle was joined, they sent away some newly arrived reinforcements – it didn’t occur to them that they might need to make some half-time substitutions!  By dusk on that Saint Crispin’s Day, Henry’s small army had entered military legend.

Agincourt Museum Guide

I visited the battle site in August 2013 and after a short drive from our hotel we arrived at the site of the battle that doesn’t seem anything special now after all this time and we may well have missed what is now a rather unremarkable field in northern France if it wasn’t for the roadside decoration where English archers and French cavalry faced each other once again in row after row of wooden statues.

A few neighbouring wind farms apart, the terrain has barely changed in the six hundred intervening years and today the battlefield is exactly that – a field, with ploughed ridges a foot deep, flanked by trees on either side. Sixty miles west of Lille, the flat country is broken up by poplars dotted with mistletoe, red-roofed bungalows and small Gothic churches with broach spires.

Agincourt Battlefield

We stopped for a while and surveyed the field which gave no clues to the battle and then we continued to the Agincourt Museum.

I am not really sure what I was expecting but I was certainly surprised by the place.  I had always imagined that France would have no real enthusiasm for financing and building a museum to commemorate a humiliating defeat but inside there was an unexpectedly balanced account of the battle and the history of the Hundred Years War (which I suppose the French did win at the end of the day so they can afford to be magnanimous about it) and in some of the displays and the explanations I had to remind myself that Henry was the English King and it was the French who were defeated here.

Anyway, six hundred years is a very long time and I don’t suppose it really matters that much anymore and after all the French have been Republicans, on and off, for over 200 years now so why should it matter to them a great deal whether the Plantagenets or the Valois won that day?

Agincourt Archers

I remember studying Shakespeare’s Henry V for English ‘o’ level and the school production of the play in 1969.

I auditioned but was not successful in securing a speaking part but was compensated with not one, but two roles as an extra.  My first part was rather important as I was the servant who carried on the casket of tennis balls that is presented to King Henry by the French Ambassador in Act 1 Scene 2 and then I had to make a hasty costume change to become one of the English army, first at the siege of Harfleur in Act 3 scene 1 and then at the battle of Agincourt in Act 4 scene 1.

Rather like the French King, Charles VI, the failure to get a part in the play was a bit of a personal setback for me and I never auditioned for a part in the school play or any other sort of play ever again but I have to admit that this was no great loss to the theatrical profession.

Henry V

By an interesting chronological coincidence the British fought another heroic battle on St Crispin’s Day but this time without such a glorious result – The Charge of the Light Brigade on October 25th 1854.

“This day is called the feast of Crispian:
He that outlives this day, and comes safe home,
Will stand a tip-toe when the day is named,
And rouse him at the name of Crispian.
He that shall live this day, and see old age,
Will yearly on the vigil feast his neighbours,
And say ‘To-morrow is Saint Crispian:’
Then will he strip his sleeve and show his scars.
And say ‘These wounds I had on Crispin’s day.”

William Shakespeare – ‘Henry V’

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44 responses to “St Crispin’s Day and the Battle of Agincourt

  1. Nothing like seeing the celebration of history in such visually and artistically striking ways – love that stuff.

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  2. Incredible account of History. Such places always inspire me to travel. Thanks for sharing.

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  3. I had completely forgotten this anniversary, thank you so much for reminding me of it. Arguably England’s greatest ever victory until the 1966 World Cup. I think we must have done the same O-Level syllabus by the way!

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  4. War is Hell, and those fake soldiers look kind of cartoonish.

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  5. Europe if different from North America in that I’d expect the field might be covered with all kinds of dwellings, shopping plazas and the like.
    Interesting read, Andrew. I can’t imagine with all that killing for over 100 years, they didn’t wipe out the population. 😮

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  6. All that blood, guts and gore seems rather pointless actually. As you said: “Anyway, six hundred years is a very long time and I don’t suppose it really matters that much anymore…”
    I suppose if we can’t control the population explosion in more humane ways, it has it’s place.

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  7. God for England, Harry and Saint George!

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  8. Great history lesson, Andrew.

    “but rather of desperate men hacking at each other to break limbs and crush skulls” Sounds like most war to me. –Curt

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  9. Slightly off topic but I think that’s me on the right of Steve Veasey in the school play photo! Thanks for the reminder as I’d almost completely forgotten about this. Do you know what happened to Steve?

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    • I remember that you were there Rod, did you play the part of Fleullen? No, I never knew what happened to Steve. I seem to recall that he left university without finishing his course and moved on?

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  10. Warfare is a fascinating subject. Despite the dubious morality of using violence to achieve personal or political aims. It remains that conflict has been used to do just that throughout recorded history.

    Your article is very well done, a good read.

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  11. Pingback: The Battlefield Site of Agincourt | Have Bag, Will Travel

  12. For the English it was a case of kill or be killed, I think we made the right choice

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  13. Very well written, Andrew

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  14. We must have visited around the same time! I remember the museum well, especially the contraption where you could attempt to “pull” a longbow. It was a contraption of pulleys and weights inside a glass case. I could hardly do it with two hands leaning backwards! And the size of the model horse in there (Destrier?) was astounding. Overall I was impressed with the quality of the museum, as you say, even though they lost. However they seem to be winning the tourism war and the village must make a packet from tourists. Incidentally wasn’t St Crispian the patron of cobblers who also had a brother Crispin?

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  15. I don’t think it is possible to judge men in 1415 by the standards of 500 years later. And in any case, the vast majority of wars fought on our planet nowadays are still fought by 1415 rules. The Germans killed thousands of Allied prisoners, for example, and 99% of the perpetrators were allowed to go free. Assad slaughters children and God only knows what goes on in Africa and South America. Man will always be, for the most part, “filthy, horrible and merciless”, a wonderful phrase, I wish I’d thought of it!

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  16. There is a program on television in the US where blacksmiths compete to make weapons within a time frame for a chance to compete for $10,000 in a final round between two finalists. In the final competition, they return to their home forges for five days to recreate an historic weapon chosen from among those from anywhere in the world. These weapons are horrific!

    Specialists judge the final products of the two finalists in tests that highlight the “advantages” they had for people in older cultures in battle, including attacks on anatomically correct “humans”.

    “This weapon will kill!” the specialist proclaims after slicing a hanging side of pig in half or after noting the weapon penetrated the brain “without losing its edge” or heart of the “victim” or after gutting same. Ugh!

    The imagination of humans to destroy others of their kind is appalling and grim! Oddly enough, though modern means are “neater” and faster, requiring less personal contact, they are no less savage as two men bashing each other with maces or other hand weapons.

    Unfortunately, lack of personal, physical contact with the other side when operating a drone over Syria from a “bunker” in Florida, USA makes the action more a game than another form of warmaking where the sounds and smells of people dying horrific deaths (and being a candidate oneself for the same fate!) is absent. Makes one a bit more casual about killing when you are safe thousands of miles away.

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    • Absolutely, all war is savage! A shame about the latest action in Syria, it may only lead to greater conflict!

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      • I believe you are right. It was not thought out. The three countries treat it like a one time thing, forgetting that they are dealing with a region where every ill of the past who knows how many millenia is added into the pile of reasons there can’t be peace through one simple action.

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  17. I really love your forays into history. It may be 600 years ago but some of your description with the photo of the mud makes it so much clearer,

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