Iceland, Folklore and the Hidden People

Elf Houses 1

“This is a land where the wind can knock you off your feet, where the smell of sulphur from your taps tells you there is invisible fire not far below your feet….Everyone is aware that the land is alive, and one can say that the stories of hidden people and the need to work carefully with them reflects an understanding that the land demands respect”.                                                          Terry Gunnell, a folklore professor at the University of Iceland

As we drove towards Þingvellir we crossed a ghostly, mystical landscape of mountain passes with peaks lost in the clouds and windswept valleys with remote coloured houses of the hardy residents and maybe also the tiny hidden homes of the secretive Huldufólk, the “hidden folk” of Icelandic folklore because Icelandic gardens often feature tiny wooden álfhól or elf houses for hidden people to live in.

In a land of fire and ice, a wild and magical place, where the fog-shrouded lava fields offer a spooky landscape it is possible that anything out of the ordinary is possible and stories abound about the “hidden folk”.

Hidden people are special here and it is said often appear in the dreams of Icelanders but if you ask me that could just be the result of too much home-brew. They are usually described as wearing nineteenth century Icelandic clothing, and are often portrayed as traditionally wearing green.  One of Iceland’s most famous people, the singer Björk was asked in an interview on US TV if people in her country believed in elves; she explained. “We do….It’s sort of a relationship with nature, like with the rocks. (The elves) all live in the rocks, so you have to. It’s all about respect, you know.”


We stopped now and then to photograph the real people houses and I reminded everyone to be careful where they walked in case they stepped on one of these tiny alternative inhabitants because Icelanders prefer big people to be careful and even frown upon the throwing of stones in case you inadvertently hit one of these small invisible people.

These are the thousands of elves who make their homes in Iceland’s wilderness and coexist alongside the 320,000 or so Icelandic people.  Iceland is not alone in this and Scandinavian folklore in general is full of elves, trolls and other mythological characters. Most people in Norway, Denmark and Sweden haven’t taken them seriously for several years but elves are no joke to many in Iceland and in a survey conducted by the University of Iceland in 2007 it found that sixty-two percent of the respondents thought it was at least possible that they exist.

icelanders believe in elves

Even President Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson seems taken in by this and has explained the existence of Huldufólk tales by saying: “Icelanders are few in number, so in the old times we doubled our population with tales of elves and fairies.”

Huldufólk are believed to live close to humans and are often blamed when things go missing rather like the plot of the 1952 book ‘The Borrowers’ by the English author Mary Norton.

“…Borrower’s don’t steal.”
“Except from human beings,” said the boy.
Arrietty burst out laughing; she laughed so much that she had to hide her face …. “Oh dear,” she gasped with tears in her eyes, “you are funny!” She stared upward at his puzzled face. “Human beans are for Borrowers – like bread’s for butter!” 

To illustrate how seriously Icelanders take the issue of elves in 1982 a delegation of Icelanders went to the NATO base in Keflavík to look for “elves who might be endangered by American Phantom jets” and in 2004, Alcoa (the World’s third largest producer of aluminium) had to have a government expert certify that their chosen building site was free of archaeological sites, including ones related to Huldufólk folklore, before they could build an aluminium smelter in Iceland.

More recently Elf protectors have joined forces with environmentalists to urge the Icelandic Road and Coastal Commission and local authorities to abandon a highway project because it might disturb them and their homes. The proposed highway would offer a direct route from the Alftanes peninsula where we had been earlier this morning to the capital Reykjavik but the project has been halted until the Supreme Court of Iceland rules on the case.  The activists cite a cultural and environmental impact – including the plight of the elves – as a reason for regularly gathering hundreds of people to block workers from bulldozing the area.


And it’s not the first time issues about the Huldufolk have affected planning decisions. They occur so often that the road and coastal administration has come up with a stock media response for elf inquiries, which states that “issues have been settled by delaying the construction project at a certain point while the elves living there have supposedly moved on.”  Apparently there have been quite a few noticeable instances of construction projects being postponed for fear of building on land occupied by hidden people and a medium is often called in to negotiate with the elves to ask their permission to build.

As we drove the final few kilometres I kept a careful eye out for any signs of the elves but of course this was pointless because you can’t see them unless they feel like showing themselves to you so all I could imagine was – where they watching us as we approached the spiritual heartland of Iceland at Þingvellir?

Elf Houses

36 responses to “Iceland, Folklore and the Hidden People

  1. Andrew, it is magic landscape and you can well understand how such ideas come about. American phantom jets are likely to be a danger to anyone, including Americans.


  2. Those little houses are the cutest things ever! I want to go immediately, if not to see the magical elves, at least where they live. Great post Andrew.


    • I spotted one or two in Reyjkavik and before I knew about the elves thought they must be discarded dolls’ houses!


      • That’s funny Andrew! When we were in Slovenia I was looking for the brightly coloured bee hives I read about. I missed two thinking they were colourful dumpsters 🙂 Then I hot in the swing of things. Still very keen to hunt elf houses.


  3. just beautiful – the image itself speaks by herself…


  4. For a country with the population of coventry, Iceland punches above its weight at football, elves or not. They only missed out on a World Cup place by losing a play-off. Would have been great to see them in Brazil!


  5. I can imagine the headaches the planning committee has when expansion of building proposals come up but it’s still delightful whimsy…at least to us foreigners. 😉


  6. Fascinating. I have never been to Iceland but I can imagine it now from your blogpost. In Norway I definitely got the feeling that the inhabitants believe in trolls and in Ireland there is still certainly respect the ‘little people’ in the countryside. Life is strange and fabulous!


  7. That’s absolutely amazing. We in the Western World tend to attribute belief in the fanciful to far away third-world places. It’s great to see some of the most educated people in the world looking for elves.


  8. I must have missed something, I think. Who builds the little houses? And please don’t tell me the little people. I’m becoming very scathing in my old age. But the brain is a little fogged from getting up at 3 to watch Rafa.


  9. I shall watch where I tread Andrew. Did you spot any trolls…?


  10. Makes me think of Darby O’Gill.


  11. Loved the wildness of Iceland’s landscape when I was there… would love to revisit and see if I can spot some elves! 😉


  12. That is definitely the first time I have heard of environmentalists teaming up with elf protectors. Do all the elf houses look the same? Or are they designed to look like the nearest human sized house?


  13. Love this story I can quite see why the Icelanders would believe in elves and fairies it looks a wild, desolate landscape but eerily beautiful!! Love the little house too! 🙂


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